1. General data and consumption
Information is collected on the activity carried out, requesting invoices and discharging the
meters, comparing them with the supplies and consumption necessary to provide the
optimal conditions for the correct development of the activity.
2. Analysis of the electricity grid
The reality of the data appearing in the electric bill is contrasted with the analysis of the
electricity network. To ensure correct measurement, auditors place a network analyser or
power recorder at the point of entry of electrical energy into the circuit(s) to be analyzed.
3. Envelope
The characteristics of the envelope are analyzed in terms of enclosures, gaps, thermal
bridges and valuation of energy losses (transmittances) by a deficient insulation in walls,
glasses, frames, etc. To detect energy losses is very useful the use of thermal cameras
that detect very clearly the inputs or exits of heat.
4. Lighting
Lighting is one of the most clearly identifiable needs. Sufficient lighting must be provided
with the lowest possible energy consumption.
In an energy audit, an inventory of all luminaires and lamps is made, to know the power
consumed and thus analyze if the light level is optimal. The luxometer is used for this
5. Air-conditioning, air-conditioning and domestic hot
water (HWW)
A detailed study of the generation equipment and distribution systems is carried out.
Generally, the renovation of air or primary air supply (to maintain the sanitary conditions
of the space), is usually resolved in the current facilities with the own air conditioning.
In general, this is usually solved by units with heat pump technology that take advantage
of the smallest possible difference in temperatures between the interior and the exterior
source. Domestic hot water is usually produced by boilers fueled by natural gas or liquefied
petroleum gases and stored in well-insulated accumulators to minimize losses.
6. Electrical and thermal equipment
An inventory and study of electrical equipment for air conditioning and ventilation, boilers,
pumps (drinking water and heating), office equipment, kitchen equipment or others is
carried out. The most important thing of these equipment is that its performance is as
optimal as possible, so that its performance curve is as close as possible to that provided
by the equipment manufacturer.
In order to achieve this performance, proper maintenance of equipment is essential, as well
as its replacement by newer technologies that produce a rapid amortization of the
necessary expenditure and significant future savings.
7. Control and management of equipment
Knowing and obtaining the data of the control systems, air quality control and ambient
temperature is essential to achieve significant energy savings. In order to achieve this
objective, the help of computerization and monitoring of the different installed equipment is
8. Renewable energy
This chapter would include solar thermal plants, usually for domestic hot water and heating
support, solar photovoltaic installations, which provide electricity either for self-consumption
or to feed distribution networks, wind installations, hydropower plants,… and those based
on the mentioned technologies of “heat pump” such as geothermal, aerothermia, etc.
9. Water equipment
Water equipment is necessary to satisfy the consumption of both cold and hot water. It
should be borne in mind that one of the objectives for improving the environment is to
reduce water pollution, which would also mean lower consumption.
A water installation, whether hot or cold, involves distributing it at different points of
consumption at a certain pressure, which may require support from circulation pumps,
expansion tanks, etc.
10. Energy management
The study of the energy audit analyzes the relevant data of the current energy
management and the use of housing. Control of the energy management of energy
production or consumption facilities is becoming, as noted above, essential in terms of
rationalizing consumption, with consequent energy savings. The monitoring of
installations that aim at operations such as automatic switching off of both lights and
equipment, presence control, entry into service, etc., allows to obtain very significant
savings in consumption.